Monero Futures is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell Monero at a predetermined future date and price. The futures contract derives its value from the underlying cryptocurrency, Monero in this case. Thus the price of a Monero futures contract moves broadly in sync with the price of Monero.
Trading futures is thus an alternative to actually buying or selling the underlying crypto (aka spot trading). In spot trading, you can make profit by buying Monero low and selling it at a high price. This trade however works only in a bull market, i.e. when Monero price is going up. However, in a bear market, there is no trade possible in spot trading. Furthermore, leverage trading is not possible in spot trading.
Trading Monero through futures offers several advantages over spot trading of Monero, namely ability to both long or short and get access to leverage.
Trade profitably in all market conditions
Hedge Price Risk
If you are a HODLer, you can still use futures to mitigate price risk. Say, you hold XMR. You can mitigate the risks you face when Monero is falling by going short XMR futures. In this case, a short futures position acts as a downside protection by effectively locking the $ value of your portfolio without the need for selling your Monero. Judicious use of futures as hedge can make you a better and stronger HODLer.
Amplify trading gains with leverage